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Mobile access and working tower made of prefabricated

elements – Materials, dimensions, design loads, safety and

performance requirements


Contents 内容


1 Scope

2 Normative references

3 Terns and definitions

4 Classification

5 Designation

6 Materials

7 General requirements

8 Requirements for structural design

9 Instruction manual

10 Marking

11 Structural design

12 Tests

13 Assessment

Annex A (normative) Stiffness test on complete tower structure

Annex B (informative) National A-deviations




This document (EN 1004:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC

53”Temporary works equipment”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.


有他的秘书处DIN 持有。

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by

publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2005, and

conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2005.

这个欧洲标准是一个国家标准,最迟到2005 年6 月作为正文或文件出版,如果

与国家标准有冲突将会被撤销,最迟到2005 年6 月。

This document supersedes HD 1004:1992.


The development of mobile access and working towers is from two roots:

---- scaffold manufacturers placed prefabricated unanchored scaffolds on four legs

and castors and

---- ladder manufacturers began to construct mobile access towers with light-weight

ladders using aluminum frames and castors.




Taking this into account, CEN/TC 53 decided in 1980 to standardize the manufacture

of mobile access and working towers in parallel with the European standardization of

prefabricated service and working scaffolds EN 12810-2 and EN 12811-3.

鉴于此,CEN/TC53 在1980 年决定,制造的可移动脚手架的标准要与欧洲标准

EN12810-2 和EN12811-3 水平相当。

For materials, this document refers only to valid documents. However, a large stock of

equipment made of materials conforming to documents no longer valid is in use. The

document does not cover this equipment.



During discussion of the draft it was noted that the average height of people is

increasing and that consideration will have to be given in later editions to altering

vertical dimensions.


According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards

organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European

Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and United Kingdom.

根据CEN/CENELEC 内部规定,以下国家的国家标准组织会执行这个标准:奥




1 Scope

1 范围

This document applies to the design of mobile access and working towers made of

prefabricated elements with a height from 2.5m to 12.0m (indoors) and from 2.5m to

8.0m (outdoors).

这个文件适用于可移动脚手架的设计,制造高度从2.5m 到12.0m(室内),宽度

2.5m 到8.0m(室外)。

This document:

---- gives guidelines for the choice of the main dimensions and stabilizing methods;

---- gives safety and performance requirements; and

---- gives some information on complete towers.





NOTE In this document “indoors” means that the towers is not be exposed to wind,

and “outdoors” means that the tower may be exposed to wind.

注 这个文件中“室内”是指工作台没有暴露在风里,“室外”是指工作台也许


2 Normative references

2 标准参考

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this

document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.



EN74, Couplers, loose spigots and base-plates for use in working scaffolds and

falsework made of steel tubes- Requirements and test procedures

EN1298, Mobile access and working towers – Rules and guidelines for the

preparation of an instruction manual

EN1991-2-4, Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures – Parts 2-4:

Actions on structures – Wind actions

EN1993-1-1: 2005, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1-1: General rules

and rules for buildings

EN1995-1-1, Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures – Part 1-1: General rules and

rules for building

EN1999-1-1, Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures –Part 1-1: General rules –

General rules and rules for buildings

EN12810-2, Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components – Parts 2: Particular

methods of structural design

EN12811-2, Temporary works equipment – Part 2: Information on materials.

EN12811-3, Temporary works equipment – Part 3: Load testing

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

3 条款和定义


3.1 mobile access and working towers

Scaffold structures which:

---- are capable of being used free-standing;

---- have one or more working platforms;

---- are assembled using prefabricated components;

---- have the dimensions fixed by the design;

---- have normally four legs with at least four castors;

---- are stable, by support on the ground and if necessary by support to a vertical

construction by wall strut.

3.1 可移动工作平台








3.2 height (H)

Distance from the ground to the upper surface of the top platform

3.2 高度(H)


3.3 castor wheel

Swiveling wheel secured to the base of a member to enable the tower to be moved

3.3 脚轮


3.4 adjustable leg

incorporated into the structure only for plumbing a tower when situated on uneven or

sloping ground. An adjustable leg may be fitted with either a castor wheel or a base


3.4 可调支脚



3.5 platform component

unit of platform that supports a load on its own

3.5 平台组件


3.6 bracing member

means used to stiffen the structure

3.6 支柱


3.7 outrigger

component that increases the effective base dimensions of a tower, with provision for

the attachment of a castor.

3.7 支腿


3.8 stabilizer

component that increases the effective base dimensions of a tower, without provisions

for the attachment of a castor

3.8 稳定器


3.9 ballast

weights placed at the base of the tower to increase to overturning

3.9 压舱物


3.10 wall strut

means for providing compressive restraint to prevent a tower overturning. It is

normally a horizontal tubular member, one end of which is coupled to the tower,

while the other end rests against a wall or other structure

3.10 支墙件



3.11 stairway

means of access intended for persons carrying tools or materials

3.11 梯子


3.12 stairladder

means of access intended for persons not carrying tools or materials

3.12 扶梯


3.13 inclined ladder

means of access intended for persons not carrying tools or materials with an

inclination from 60°to75°

3.13 斜梯

倾度在60 到75 度之间,供不带工具或材料上下的人员使用

3.14 vertical ladder

means of access intended for persons not carrying tools or materials with an

inclination of 90°

3.14 垂直梯

倾度 90 度的供不带工具或材料上下的人员使用

3.15 platform

one or more platform components forming a working area

3.15 平台


3.16 length (L)

Greater of the two plane dimensions at the platform level (see Figure 1)

3.16 长度(L)

平台表面两个平面尺寸较长的那个(参见图表 1)

3.17 width (W)

lesser of the two plane dimensions at the platform level (see Figure 1)

3.17 宽度(W)

平台表面两个平面尺寸较短的那个(参见图表 1)

4 Classificatio

4 等级

4.1 Load classes

4.1 负载等级

The classes of uniformly distributed load are given in Table 1.

Tables 1 ---- Classes of uniformly distributed load

Load class Uniformly distributed load q kN/ m2

2 1.50

3 2.00

表1 中给出的平均分配的负载等级


负载等级 平均分配负载 kN/ m2

2 1.50

3 2.00

4.2 Access classes

Four options for access to the platform are described in 7.6.

4.2 路径等级

7.6 中描述了四种平台路径。

5 Designation

The following data are required for the designation of all prefabricated mobile access

and working towers:

a) class of uniformly distributed load (see 4.1);

b) maximum height outdoors/indoors;

c) access classes (see 4.2).

5. 说明






6 Materials

6 材料

Materials shall fulfill the requirements given in documents where design data are

provided. Information for the most commonly used materials are given in EN


材料必须完全履行设计数据的要求。常用材料在EN12811-2 中有规定。

Steel shall be protected by one of the methods given in EN 12811-2, Clause 8 or zinc

coated with an average thickness of 15μm.

钢材料应该参照EN12811-2,第8 条给出的方法或者镀锌厚度为15μm 保护。

7 General requirements

7 总体要求

7.1 General

7.1 总述

The following sub clauses specify the minimum requirements for the mobile access

and working tower including platforms.


It shall be possible to fix platforms for erection and dismantling purposes with vertical

distances between platforms not exceeding 2.10m.

为了使平台能安装及拆卸,其间的垂直距离不能超过2.10 米。

7.2 Dimensions

7.2 尺寸

The minimum width, W, of the platform shall be 0.60m and minimum length, L1,

shall be 1.00m. The minimum clear height between platforms “H” shall be in

accordance with Table 2.

平台的最小宽度(W)和最短长度(L1)分别为0.60 米和1.00 米。最低净高度

则如以下表2 所列:

Table 2---- Clear height classes 净高度分类

Clear height class 高度分类 Minimum clear height H in m


H1 1.85

H2 1.90

7.3 Apertures within platforms

The aperture shall be as small as practicable, and it shall have a minimum clear

opening of:

0.40m wide x 0.60m long

7.3 平台孔径


0.4 米宽X0.6 米长

Apertures in platforms shall not exceed 25 mm in width. This does not apply to

apertures like hand holes in hatches.


Access to a working platform through an aperture in a platform shall be provided with

means to prevent falling through.


7.4 Side protection 护边

7.4.1 General 总述

For allowable dimensions see Figure 2.


Dimensions in millimeters unless otherwise stated


Figure 2-----Side protection dimensions 图2—护边尺寸

Side protection components shall be incapable of removal except by direct intentional



It shall be possible to erect protection at platform edges comprising:

a) at least one principal guardrail and intermediate side protection;

b) toe-board


a)至少1 个主要的护栏和中间护栏;


7.4.2 Principal guardrail

7.4.2 主要护栏

The principal guardrail shall be fixed so that its top surface is 1 m or more above the

adjacent level of the working area everywhere (minimum height 950 mm).1)

1) See A-deviation

主护拦需固定,其顶部表面比其他类似级别的工作区域要高出至少1 米。

7.4.3 Intermediate side protection

7.4.3 中间护栏

Intermediate side protection shall be fixed between the principal guardrail and the



Intermediate side protection may consist of:

---- one or more intermediate guardrails, or

---- a frame, or

---- a frame of which the principal guardrail forms the top edge, or

---- a fencing structure.






Openings in the side protection shall be so dimensioned so that a sphere with a

diameter of 470 mm will not pass through them.

护栏的口径需测算,使直径为470 毫米的球体无法通过。

7.4.4 Toe-board

7.4.4 踏脚板

It shall be possible to fix a solid toe-board such that its top edge is at least 150mm

above the adjacent platform level.

坚固的侧板需固定,其顶部边缘相对于类似的平台要高出至少150 毫米。

7.5 Castor wheels 脚轮

7.5.1 General 总则

Castor wheels shall be fixed to the tower in such a way that they cannot be accidentally detached.


7.5.2 Brakes 刹车

All castors shall have wheel brakes. They shall have swivel brakes unless by their design they are

not eccentric when locked.


The brake mechanism shall be designed in such a way that it can only be unlocked by a deliberate



7.6 Access to platforms

7.6 平台路径

7.6.1 General

7.6.1 总述

The access type is classified by a letter A, B, C, or D as follows:

平台路径可分为A,B,C,D 四种类型:

---- Access type A: Stairway;

----Access type B: Stair ladder;

The brake mechanism shall effectively prevent any rotation of the wheel when a horizontal force

of 0,30 kN is applied through the vertical swivel axis of the castor as close as possible above the

castor housing and in the rolling direction of the castor. The full value of the specified service load

per castor wheel is to be applied when testing the castor brakes. A minimum of five control tests

shall be carried out.




7.5.3 Test loads 载重测试

The vertical service load per wheel given by the manufacturer of the MAT (Mobile Access Tower)

shall be verified by a minimum of 5 tests.


The test load shall be three times the service load per castor wheel derived from the most unfavourable

load combination from Table 4.


When the brakes are locked, an initial vertical load of 0,50 kN shall be applied. The plate of the

fork shall be taken as the origin for measurements of vertical displacement dc and the residual

deformation dr. The load shall be increased to the maximum test load, maintained for one minute

and the vertical deformation dc shall be measured. The load shall be returned to 0,50 kN. After

30 min the residual deformation dr shall be measured.



回 归 到0.30分钟后,测试残余变形的数据。

The test shall meet both of the following requirements:


— residual deformation dr after 30 min shall not be more than 1,5 mm;

30分钟后残余变形不应该大于1.5 mm

— total deformation dc shall not be more than 15 mm.


The service load is verified if all five tests meet the test requirements.


7.5.4 Wheels 轮子

Wheels shall be of punctureless type.


----Access type C: Inclined ladder;

----Access type D: Vertical ladder.

A- 楼梯;

B- 扶梯;

C- 斜梯;

D- 直梯。

Where a range of access types is provided, a combined classification is used.



Type AXCX means that stairways and inclined ladders can be provided.

Type ABCD means that all four types of access can be provided.

NOTE: The X in the designation means that those types of access are not provided.

类型AXCA 意味着路径中的楼梯和斜梯。

类型ABCD 意味着所有的4 种路径。

注:X 的意思不是其中任何一种。

7.6.2 General requirements

7.6.2 总体要求

Access to platforms in an assembled tower shall be within the main structural

supports and shall:

---- be secured against unintentional loosening;

---- not rest on the ground;

---- have a distance from the ground to the first step or rung of 400 mm maximum (if

the first step is a platform, 600 mm is allowable);

---- have steps/rungs with constant spacing and a slip resistant surface.




——地面到第一个横杆的距离最大为400 毫米,如果第一层是平台,则距离可以

是600 毫米;


7.6.3 Requirements for stairway and stair ladder

7.6.3 楼梯和扶梯的要求 General 总述

The outside of stair flight shall be provided with a handrail which runs approximately

parallel to the stairs. Where a flight of stairs is provided in a continuous dog-leg style,

a handrail shall be also be provided on the inside. When flights of stairs are

interrupted by platforms at ≤2.1 intervals, the inside handrail may be omitted.


果某段楼梯在不到(含)2.1 米处有平台,则内部扶手可以省略。

Flights of stairs in a continuous dog-leg style shall have landings. Each of these stairs

shall have a minimum of one landing and this shall have a minimum length of 300



300 毫米。

The minimum clear height for access measured between the steps and the supporting

structure of the stairway or stairladder above shall not be less than 1.75m.

梯子踏板与支撑结构之间的最小净高不能小于1.75 米。 Requirements for stairway class A (see Figure 3) A 类云梯要求:见图3

- Inclination 35º≤α ≤55º; 倾斜度

- vertical step depth 190mm≤t≤250mm;垂直踏板深度

- Minimum step width d=125mm;踏板最小宽度

- Minimum clear width 400mm;最小净宽

- Horizontal gap between steps 0≤g≤50mm; 踏板间水平间隙 Requirements for stairladder class B (See Figure 4)

- Inclination 35º≤α ≤55º; 倾斜度

- Vertical step depth 150mm≤t≤250mm; 垂直踏板深度

- Minimum step width d=80mm;踏板最小宽度

- Minimum clear width 280mm;最小净宽

- Horizontal gap between steps 0≤g≤160mm;踏板间水平间距 Requirements of inclined ladder class C (See Figure 5) C 级斜梯的要求(参见图5)

- Inclination 倾斜 60º≤α ≤75º;

- Step spacing 踏板间距 230mm≤t≤300mm;

- Step depth 踏板深度 d>80mm;

- Rung spacing 横档间距 230mm≤t≤300mm;

- Rung depth 横档深度 20mm≤d≤80mm;

- Minimum clear width 最小净宽 280mm;

- Maximum vertical distance between different platforms 4.2m;


- Maximum distance between the ground and the first platform 4.6m.

从地面到第一个平台之间的最大距离 Requirements of vertical ladder class D (See Figure 6) D 级直梯的要求(参见图6)

From the front edge of the step or from the centre of the rung to any obstacle behind

the stairway/ladder there shall be a horizontal distance of s=150mm minimum (see

Figure 6).



- Rung spacing 横档间距 230mm≤t≤300mm;

- Rung depth 横档深度 20mm≤d≤51mm;

- Minimum clear width 最小净宽 280mm;

- Maximum vertical distance between different platforms 4.2m;


- Maximum distance between the ground and the first platform 4.6m.


7.7 Means for stabilizing

7.7 稳定器的方式

7.7.1 Stabilizers and outriggers

7.7.1 稳定器和舷外支架

The stabilizers and outriggers of a tower shall be purpose designed as component of

the main structure and shall provide means of adjustment to ensure contact with the




The method of fixing the stabilizer or outrigger to the tower shall have adequate

strength and shall be such that the reaction loads in the stabilizer or outrigger are

transferred to the tower without slip, rotation, or other movement of the stabilizer or




7.7.2 Ballast

If ballast is necessary, it shall be securely positioned and made of rigid materials such

as steel or concrete, but excluding liquids or granular materials.

7.7.2 压舱物



7.8 Connections

7.8 连接件

7.8.1 General

7.8.1 概述

Each connection device shall be effective, easy to monitor and the components shall

be easy to assemble. The securing of components forming part of the structure of the

scaffold and side protection components shall make them incapable of removal except

by direct intentional action.



7.8.2 Vertical spigot and socket connection

7.8.2 垂直套管和孔型连接件

When assembled, the horizontal movement (slack or play) between upper and lower

components shall not exceed 4 mm or a movement away from the centre line of 2


装配后,上下部件之间的水平移动(松动或运动)不应该超过4mm 或者离中心


In all cases it shall not be possible to disconnect an upper component laterally until

the upper component has been lifted more than 80mm.


When the spigot and socket connection acts over a distance less than 150mm, the

connection shall be provided with a positive locking device, such as a cross pin, to

prevent the upper component from being lifted unintentionally.

当套管和孔型连接件连接长度少于150mm 时,连接件必须有一个锁定装置,比


The captive locking device shall be placed in such a way that its positive action can be

monitored visually.


7.8.3 Other vertical connections

7.8.3 其他垂直连接件

There shall be equivalent provision related to 7.8.2 to limit the risk of accidental


应该有等同于7.8.2 的规定限制意外断开的风险。

NOTE Other strength requirements can impose further limitations on the

arrangement of connections.

注 其他强度要求可以限制连接件的排列。

7.9 Platform components

Components of platforms shall be durable and shall have a slip-resistant surface. It

shall be possible to secure these components so that overturning or removal by wind

not possible.

7.9 平台组件


7.10 Erection and dismantling

The tower shall remain stable and resist all loads imposed on the components also

during erection and dismantling.

7.10 安装和拆除


9 Instruction manual

For each type of prefabricated equipment the manufacturer shall produce an

instruction manual for use on site. The instruction manual shall include at least the

data according to EN 1298.

9 使用手册



10 Marking

10 标记

10.1 Components

10.1 组件

Each purpose designed component shall be marked with:

a) a symbol or letter to identify the MAT system and its manufacturer;

b) the year of manufacture, using the last two digits. Alternatively a code for tracing

the year of manufacturer may be used.

Marking shall be so arranged that it will remain legible for the life of the component.

The size of the lettering may take account of the size of the component.


a)用符号或字母标注MAT 系统和他的制造商;



10.2 Manufacturers plate

A manufacturer’s plate showing the information below shall be displayed and visible

from the ground level on all mobile access and working tower:

a) manufacturer’s mark;

b) designation;

c)”Instructions for erection and use to be followed carefully” in the respective


10.2 制造商板





11 Structural design

11 结构设计

11.1 Basic design principle

11.1 基本设计原则

11.1.1 Introduction

11.1.1. 指南

Mobile access and working towers shall be designed for load bearing capacity,

serviceability and resistance to overturning. Unless otherwise stated in this clause, the

documents for structural engineering shall be applied.



The strength of joints and connections (e.g. welded joints, compressed connections,

hollow type rivet connections) shall be verified.


Concepts relate to the limit state method.

Full scale or detail testing may be undertaken in accordance with EN 12811-3 to

supplement calculation.


根据EN12811-3 进行全面或详细测试补充计算。

11.1.2 Structural design of components Steel

The structural design shall be in accordance with EN 1993-1-1 taking into account EN


11.1.2 组件结构设计 钢

根据 EN1993-1 进行结构设计,并考虑EN12811-2。 Aluminum

The structural design shall be in accordance with EN 1999-1-1 taking into account EN

12811-2. 铝

结构设计根据EN1999-1-1,并考虑EN12811-2。 Timber

The structural design shall be in accordance with EN 1995-1-1 taking into account EN

12811-2. 木料

结构设计根据 EN1995-1-1,并考虑EN12811-2。 Other materials

Appropriate documents shall be applied for the structural design. If European

document do not exist, International documents may be applied. 其他材料


11.1.3 Limit states

The limit states are classified into:

---- ultimate limit states;

---- serviceability limit states.

11.1.3 限定声明




At ultimate limit state the design value for the effect of actions, that is the design

value of an internal force or moment, Ed, shall not exceed the design value of the

corresponding resistance, Rd, in accordance with the expression

Ed ≤ Rd


下列方程式,Ed 不能超过相应阻力Rd 的设计值。

Ed ≤ Rd

The design value, Ed, for the effect of action is calculated from the characteristic of

the actions specified in 8.2 and 8.3 by multiplying each by the corresponding partial

safety factor, γF.

运动效果的设计值Ed 是通过8.2 和8.3 段的运动特性值分别乘以相应的安全因

素γF 来计算的。

The design value of the resistance, Rd, is calculated from the characteristic values

specified in 11.3 by dividing by a partial safety factor, γM.

抵抗力的设计值Rd,从11.3 中的特征值除于一个部分安全因素γM 得来。

At serviceability limit state the design value for the effect of actions specified in the

serviceability criterion, Ed, shall not exceed the limiting design value of the relevant

serviceability criterion, Cd.

Ed ≤ Cd



11.2 Structural analysis

11.2.1 Choice of a model

11.2 结构分析

11.2.1 模式选择

The models adopted shall be sufficiently accurate to predict the structural behaviour

level taking into account the imperfections given in 11.2.2.

被采用的模式要十分精确的预知结构特征水平,并考虑11.2.2 中提到的不完整


The analysis carried out by checking separate planar systems shall consider the



11.2.2 Imperfections

11.2.2 缺陷 General 概述

The effects of practical imperfections, including residual stresses and geometrical

imperfections, such as out of vertical, out of straight and unavoidable minor

eccentricities shall be taken into account by suitable equivalent geometrical




The method of application shall be in accordance with the respective specifications of

the relevant design documents, for example, for steel EN 1993-1-1, for aluminium EN

1999-1-1. Deviating from these specifications, the assumptions concerning

imperfections in global frame analysis shall comply with



The equivalent geometric imperfections need not be geometrically compatible.


11.2.3 Rigidity assumptions

11.2.3 硬度假定 Joints between tubular members

11.2.1 .管件的连接点

The joints between tubular members may be assumed to be rigid connections if the

spigot permanently fixed to one document and if:



---- the overlapping length of the spigot is at least 150mm and

接头管搭接的最短长度为150 毫米

---- the play between the nominal inner diameter of the tube and the nominal outer

diameter of the spigot is not greater than 4mm.

管子的内部直径与接头管的外部直径之间的距离不超过4 毫米。

Or 或者

---- the overlapping length of the spigot is at least 80 mm and

接头管搭接的最短长度为80 毫米

---- the play between the nominal inner diameter of the tube and the nominal outer

diameter of the spigot is not greater than 2mm.

管子的内部直径与接头管的外部直径之间的距离不超过2 毫米。

This is assumption applies to tubular members with external diameters not exceeding


以上假设基于管件的外部直径不能超过60 毫米。

If one of these requirements is not met, for example if spigots according to EN 74 are

used, the joints shall be modeled as an ideal hinge. Alternatively, a detailed check on

the spigot and standard may be made (see

如果以上任何一条不符合要求,例如使用了EN74 的接头管,则连接点要仿造成

理想的铰链。不然,对于连接管个标准要进行一个详细的检查了。 Connecting devices 连接设备

The realistic load-deformation behavior of the connecting devices shall be

incorporated in the model for the analysis. Alternatively joints may be modeled by

assumptions which are on the safe side.



NOTE ENV 1993-2 and EN 12811-3 give some information on semi-rigid


注意:ENV1993-2 和EN12811-3 提供了一些半刚性连接的信息。

For the determination of the relevant parameters for semi-rigid connecting devices in

prefabricated towers, see EN 12810-2.


Where the connections to standards are made by prefabricated joints, for example in a

modular system, the design moment-rotation characteristic of ledger-to-standard or

transom-to-standard connections shall be determined.

11.2.4 Resistance

11.2.4 阻力 General 总述

The characteristic values of the resistance shall be calculated using the characteristic

values of the mechanical properties (for example the yield strength fy.k), which are

given in EN 12811-2 or may be taken from relevant documents.

阻力的特征值应该使用EN12811-2 或相关文件中给出的机械性能来计算(例如,

抗屈强度 fy.k).

For steel or aluminium members the resistances shall be determined in accordance

with 5.4 of EN 1993-1-1:2005 or 5.3 of EN 1999-1-1 respectively.

对于钢件或铝件的阻力,其分别对应EN 1993-1-1:2005 的 5.4 和EN 1999-1-1

的5.3。 Connecting devices 连接设备

To establish the characteristic values of resistance for:


a) connections covered by the scope of structural engineering regulations: see

relevant design documents;


b) semi-rigid connection devices for prefabricated tower: see EN 12811-3;


c) other connection devices which do not comply with a document test shall be

carried out. See e.g. EN 12810-2.


11.3 Verification

11.3 核实

11.3.1 General

11.3.1 总述

For the determination of internal forces and moments, elastic methods shall be used.

For example for steel see ENV 1993-1-1:1993,

对于内力和力矩的确定, 应使用弹性方法。例如钢, 请参照ENV


The influence of the deflections on the internal forces and moments shall be taken into

account; the equilibrium of the displayed system shall be calculated by the use of a

second-order analysis or by the use of a first-order analysis with amplification factors.



11.3.2 Partial safety factors

局部安全要素 Partial safety factors for actions, γF


Except when stated otherwise, the partial safety factor, γF, shall be taken as follows:

除非另有规定,否则局部安全要素γF, 应如下所示:

a) ultimate limit state

γF =1.5 for all permanent and variable loads;

γF=1.0 for accidental loads;


γF =1.5,对于所有不变的和可变动的负荷


b) serviceability limit state



γFl=1.0 Partial safety factor for material resistances, γM 材料阻力的局部安全要素,γM

For the calculation of the design values of the resistance of steel or aluminium

components the partial safety factor, γM, shall be taken from relevant documents.

对于钢部件或铝部件的结构参数阻力的计算,其局部安全要素γM 需参照相关文


For the serviceability limit state,γM, shall be taken as 1.0.


11.3.3 Ultimate limit state

11.3.3 极限状态 General

11.3.31 总述

At ultimate limit state it shall be verified, that the design values of the effects of

actions do not exceed the design values of the corresponding resistances.

在极限状态下,需检验动力作用影响的计算值不能超出相应的阻力计算值。 Tubular members 管状部件

For the combination of actions, the interaction Equation (3) may be used:



is the design value of the resistance axial force with respect to the acting shear force V;

上式是轴向力关于剪切力V 的阻力计算值:

is the design value of the resistant bending moment with respect to the acting shear

force V and 上式是反抗弯矩关于剪切力V 的计算值

是塑料抗轴向力 N 的特定值

is the characteristic plastic resistance of the axial force N;

是塑料抗弯矩 M 的特定值

is the characteristic plastic resistance of the bending moment M;

是塑料抗剪切力 V 的特定值

is the characteristic plastic resistance of the shear force V;

M is the design value of the actual bending moment;

M 是实际弯矩的计算值

N is the design value of the actual axial force;

N 是实际轴向力的计算值

V is the design value of the actual shear force.

V 是实际轴向力的计算值

For the value of the partial safety factor, γM, see

局部安全要素的值γM, 见 Joints between tubular members 管状部件间的连接点

When the requirements of a rigid connection between tubular members according to are met, the spigot only needs to be verified for the design bending moment

at the joint.

当管状部件之间的刚性连接都符合11.2.3.1 的要求时,只需检验连接管连接点的


When the overlap is less than 150mm-respectively 80mm- and the joint is not treated

as an ideal hinge, see, the detailed structural design check shall include the

bending stresses, shear stresses and local bearing stresses.

当交迭长度分别小于150 毫米或者80 毫米,连接点就不能视作是一个理想的铰


应力。 Side protection 侧面防护

Components of the side protection shall withstand the accidental load specified in without falling or disconnecting. A displacement from the original line of more

than 300mm at any point is to be taken as failure. Where necessary the displacement

may be calculated by assuming a plastic hinge, which transfers the plastic bending

resistance of the component.


移位距离超过300 毫米就被视为失败。当有必要时,移位可由假定塑胶连接来计


11.3.4 Serviceability limit state

11.3.4 正常使用极限状态

It shall be verified that the deflection requirements specified in 8.4 are met.


11.4 Positional stability

11.4 稳定性

11.4.1 General

11.4.1 总述

The structure as a whole shall be stable in all conditions. This applies to overturning

of free-standing towers. Overturning may be resisted by self-weight, added ballast,

stabilizers and outriggers or combinations of these.



11.4.2 Load cases

11.4.2 负载情况 General 总述

Following load cases shall apply. Both load directions (parallel and perpendicular to

the tower) shall be evaluated for each load case.



NOTE When a tower which requires stabilizers or outriggers is used against a wall,

wall struts may be used to provide stability. There should be a minimum of one wall

strut on each vertical of the tower close to the wall. The wall struts should always be

fitted at a level equal to or higher than the upper attachment point of the stabilizer or


注 当一个工作台要求使用稳定器或舷外支架靠墙,墙的支撑可以提供稳定性。


舷外支架的上部附件齐平或略微高出。 Load case 1 Safety factor

The safety factor against overturning shall be S≥1.5. 负载情况1 安全系数

倾覆的安全系数 S≥1.5。 Vertical loads 垂直负载

---- Self-weight

---- vertical service load on a position of 100 mm from the most unfavourable edge of

the top platform. The vertical service load to be taken into account is:

---- for platform length L≤4 m: 0.75kN;

---- for platform length L>4 m:2 x 0.75kN.]


——从平台顶部最不利边缘100mm 的位置的垂直使用负载。垂直使用负载:

——对于平台长度 L≤4 m: 0.75kN;

——对于平台长度 L>4 m:2 x 0.75kN。 Horizontal loads 水平负载

----- Horizontal service load on the top platform. The horizontal service load to be

taken into account is:

---- for platform length L≤4 m:0.3kN;

---- for platform length L>4 m:2 x 0.3kN.


——对于平台长度 L≤4 m:0.3kN;

——对于平台长度 L>4 m:2 x 0.3kN。

---- Wind load 0.1kN/m2 on structure (see and persons:

---- for platform length L≤4 m:1 person;

---- for platform length L>4 m: 2 persons.

——结构上(参见8.2.2.2)风力负载0.1 kN/m2和人员:

——对于平台长度 L≤4 m:一个人;

——对于平台长度 L>4 m:两个人。

For the wind load on persons:

---- projected area of one person: 0.7m2;

---- shape factor of : 1.0;

---- centre of area: 1m above the top platform level.

The horizontal service load and the wind shall be not be combined. Only the most

unfavourable of these horizontal loads shall be taken into account.





水平使用负载风载不能组合。只考虑水平负载的最不利条件。 Additional loads

Loads resulting from an inclined position of 1%. 额外负载

倾斜 1%位置的负载结果。 Load case 2

The safety factor against overturning shall be S≥1.3. 负载情况2

倾覆安全系数S≥1.3。 Vertical loads

---- self weight. 垂直负载

——自重。 Horizontal loads

---- wind load 0.1kN.m2 on structure (see 水平负载

——结构上的风载 0.1kN.m2(参见8.2.2.2) Additional loads

Loads resulting from an inclined position of 1%. 额外负载

倾斜 1%的位置的负载结果。

12 Tests

Being part of the structural design additional tests of a complete tower shall be made.

These tests shall be carried out in accordance with Annex A.

12 测试

完整工作台的部分机构设计需要额外测试。这些测试参照附录 A。

13 Assessment

13 评估

An assessment shall be carried out by a person or an organization different from the

designing person and organization. On completion of a successful assessment a

statement to that effect shall be given by the assessor. This statement shall identify the

reference number of all examination and the tests report shall include:

---- identification of the particular set of components examined;

---- identification of the evaluated configuration;

---- structural data for components and connections as resistances and stiffnesses

evaluated by tests.






Annex B




National A-deviations


A-deviation: National deviation due to regulations, the alteration of which is for time

being outside the competence of the CEN member.

A- deviation:根据规章国家的差异,变化超出了CEN 的能力。

This document does not fall under the Directive of the EC. In the relevant CEN

countries these A-deviation are valid instead of the provisions of the document until

they have been removed.

这个文件不在EC 指令之下。相关CEN 国家,这个A-deviation 是有效的,可以


Austrian national legislative deviation


According to §8(1) – Guardrails, of Bauarbeiterschutzerordnung (BauV) 1994, in

the version of Bundesgesetzblatt 313/20002 shall be observed:

Principe guardrails shall be fixed so that its top surface is at minimum height 1.00m

above from the adjacent level of the working area everywhere. This requirement

refers to 7.4.2 of this document.


[1] EN 39, Loose steel tubes for tube and coupler scaffolds – Technical delivery


[2] EN 1993-2, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 2: Steel bridges

[3] EN 10240, Internal and/or external protective coating for steel tubes – Specifition

for hot dip galvanized coatings applied in automatic plants

[4] EN 12810-1, Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components- Part1: Product